Information related to Soil – Soil is very important in our country because without soil it is not possible to do any work. You cannot build any building without soil. Apart from this, when it comes to farming, the importance of soil increases even more, in which the crops are prepared by the farmers. That said, the soil is a very important part of our life, without which it is considered impossible to live life. But there are many types of soil in India, and the crop cannot be grown on all soils. Therefore, if you do not get much information about soil, and you want to earn profit by doing good farming by getting information about soil, then here you are going to provide complete information about how many types of soil are found in India…Bio.SoilZ
What is soil called?
The coarse, medium, and fine organic and inorganic mixed particles on the upper surface of the earth are called ‘soil’ or soil. If we remove the soil from the upper surface, then the rock is often found there, but sometimes the rock is found only at a little depth by removing the soil.
How many types of soil are found in India:
There are mainly eight types of soil in India because the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has divided the soil of India into eight groups, the information of which is as follows-
(1) alluvial soil
(2) black soil
(3) Red and yellow soil
(4) Laterite soil
(5) Arid soils
(6) Saline soils
(7) Peaty soil and Organic soils
(8) Forest soils
Loamy soil is such a soil, which mainly absorbs water. The Central Soil Conservation Board was established in 1953 for soil conservation.
For the first time in 1879, Dok Shaiv, while classifying the soil, divided the soil into normal and abnormal soils, after which the soils of India have been broadly divided into five classes.
- alluvial soil,
- Black soil or Regur soil
- Red soil,
- Laterite soil and
- Arid soils
Alluvial soil (loam)
Alluvial soil is found in the largest area in India, which is also called loam soil. Alluvials soil are found in about 43.4 percent of the total area of India. This soil has been formed by the deposition of rivers, but the nitrogen and phosphorus content is found in alluvial soils. In places where alluvial soil is found more, it is very necessary to apply urea fertilizer for the production of the crop. Potash and lime are not found in high amounts in alluvial soils. Along with this, due to the deposition of alluvial soil, the plain of North (Gangetic region) in India, the plain of Sindh, the plain of Brahmaputra, the plain of Godavari, the river of Kaveri, etc. have remained. Alluvial soil is considered most useful for the wheat crops. Apart from this, rice and potato are also cultivated in this soil. Alluvial soil is formed by mixing sandy soil and clay soil. The color of alluvial soil is light gray.
After alluvial soil, black soil is the most used in India. Therefore, from the point of view of the area, black soil has second place in India. Black soil is most commonly used for farming in the state of Maharashtra in India and second place in the state of Gujarat. This soil is formed due to the formation of basalt rock due to the eruption of a volcano. On the other hand, black soil is known as ‘Regur’ (Regd) in South India. In Kerala, black soil is known as ‘Shali’ and in North India, black soil is known as ‘Keval’. The amount of Nitrogen and Phosphorous is also not found in black soil, because the amount of iron, lime, magnesium, and alumina is found in it. Potash content is also not high in black soil. Black soil is mostly used in the production of cotton. Along with this, the cultivation of paddy is also good in this soil. Apart from this, lentils and gram also have a good yield in black soil.
From the point of view of the area, red soil has maintained its third place in India. Red soil is spread over 5.18 lakh sq km in India. At the same time, this soil has been formed by the breakdown of granite rock. Red soil is the most widespread in the state of Tamil Nadu. Most of the minerals are found in red soil. Nitrogen and phosphorous are not found in red soil also. Iron oxide (Fe2O3) is found in red soil, due to which its color appears red. Red soil is not good for crop production. Most of the coarse cereals like jowar, bajra, groundnut, tur, maize, etc. are grown in this soil. Apart from this, paddy is also cultivated in this soil.
Dry and desert soil
Arid and desert soils are such soils, in which the amount of soluble salts and phosphorus is found to be high. Nitrogen and organic matter content is not high in this soil. This clay is more useful for the production of oilseeds. Good crop is also produced in desert soil, but for this you need to have a good system of water. Apart from oilseeds, the yield of Jowar, Bajra and Ragi crops is good in this soil.
Saline soil or alkaline soil
Saline soils are also called alkaline soils, reh soils, usar soils, and kallar soils. Alkaline soil is found in the area where a water drainage facility is not found. By the way, the amount of sodium, calcium, and magnesium is found in the soil of the area, due to which the soil becomes alkaline. Alkaline soils are formed more in the coastal plain. It has low nitrogen content. In India, alkaline soils are found in the coastal region of Punjab, Haryana, western Rajasthan, and Kerala, in which coconut is cultivated well.
Organic soil (peat soil)
Organic soil is also called swampy soil. In India, the area of marshy soil is available in Kerala, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal. Phosphorous and potash are not found in much quantity even in marshy soil, but a high amount of salt is found in it, and swampy soil is also considered good for crop production.