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Cataracts – Symptoms and causes

 

What’s Cataract?

A cataract (Hindi: motiyabind) is a clouding of the eye’s typically clear lens. People with cataracts may find it similar to gazing through a frosty or fogged-up window to see through lenses that are foggy. Cataracts can cause eyesight to become cloudy, making it more challenging to read, drive a car (especially at night), or notice a friend’s expression.

The majority of cataracts form gradually and don’t initially impair your vision. However, over time, cataracts will eventually obstruct your vision.

You can initially manage cataracts by wearing greater lights and spectacles. However, you may require cataract surgery if your vision is so bad that it interferes with your daily activities. Thankfully, cataract surgery is typically a risk-free, efficient process.

Symptoms of cataracts

If you have a cataract, you can notice the following changes in your vision:

  1. The vision that is hazy
  2. Cataract that causes double or ghostly vision in the eye
  3. Extra sensitivity to light (especially with oncoming headlights at night)
  4. Needing additional light to read in the dark or having problems seeing well at night
  5. Observing vivid hues as faded or yellow-toned
  6. Inform our best ophthalmologist (at Bharti Eye Foundation) if you have any of these cataract symptoms.
  7. Images may appear dull or yellow due to cataracts.
  8. A sign of cataracts is blurry or poor vision.
  9. Ghostly or distorted pictures may be caused by cataracts.

What are the Causes of Cataracts?

The primary factor is aging. This is brought on by typical eye changes that appear after the age of 40. At that point, the lens’ regular proteins begin to degrade. The cloudiness of the lens is due to this. Lens clouding typically begins in people over the age of 60. However, visual issues may not manifest for several years.

The following are additional causes of cataracts:

Having certain health issues, such as diabetes, smoking, having had an eye injury, eye surgery, or radiation treatments on your upper body, spending a lot of time outside, especially without sunglasses that shield your eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays, may result in the early development of cataracts.

Most cataracts brought on by aging progress slowly. Other cataracts, such as those in younger individuals or those in patients with diabetes, may progress more quickly. How rapidly a person’s cataract will form is beyond the control of doctors.

Am I at Risk of cataracts?

As you age, your chance of developing cataracts increases. Furthermore, you face a larger risk if you:

  • Have some health issues, such as diabetes
  • Smoke
  • Overindulge in alcohol
  • Have a history of cataracts in your family
  • Have you undergone any eye surgery, radiation therapy, or eye injuries on your upper body?
  • Have a history of solar exposure
  • Utilize steroids (medicines used to treat a variety of health problems, like arthritis and rashes)

Speak with our best eye doctor if you’re concerned that cataracts could be in your future. If there is anything you can do to reduce your risk, inquire.

Types of cataracts

Like an onion, the lens is made up of layers. The capsule is the most exterior. The cortex is the deepest layer of the capsule, and the nucleus is the outermost layer. In any of these places, a cataract could form. Cataracts get their name from where they exist in the lens:

  • The lens’s nucleus has a nuclear cataract. With time, the nucleus usually turns from clear to yellow and occasionally brown, darkening with time.
  • The cortical layer of the lens, which encircles the nucleus, is affected by a cortical cataract. The cataract has a wedge- or spoke-like appearance.
  • The back outer layer of the lens contains a posterior capsular cataract. Frequently, this kind progresses more quickly.

Diagnosis of Cataracts

Our best eye doctor will do a thorough eye exam to evaluate your eyesight and look for cataracts. It will also include a tonometry exam to gauge your eye pressure and an eye chart test to assess your vision at various distances.

The most popular tonometry test flattens your cornea with a painless air puff while measuring your eye pressure. Additionally, our best eye specialist will administer medications to your eyes to enlarge your pupils. This makes checking for damage to the retina and optic nerve at the rear of your eye simpler.

Checking your color perception and glare sensitivity are two other tests that our doctor might run.

What Is the Treatment?

Cataracts may only be removed surgically; however, you may not require it immediately. Early detection of the issue may allow you to get by with a fresh prescription for your glasses. Your vision may temporarily improve with a stronger lens.

Use a magnifying glass or a bulb that is brighter if you are having problems reading. If glare bothers you, consider purchasing specialized glasses with an anti-glare coating. When you drive at night, they can be useful.

 

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